Tensile Testing
Tests are performed as per the ASTM E8, ASTM A370, ASTM B557, IS/ BS Standards. A tensile test measures the resistance of a material to a static or slowly applied force. A machined specimen is placed in the testing machine and load is applied. A strain gage or extensometer is used to measure elongation. The stress obtained at the highest applied force is the Tensile Strength. The Yield Strength is the stress at which a prescribed amount of plastic deformation (commonly 0.2%) is produced. Elongation describes the extent to which the specimen stretched before fracture. Information concerning the strength, stiffness, and ductility of a material can be obtained from a tensile test. Variations of the tensile testing include; Room Temperature, Low Temperature, Elevated Temperature (ASTM E21, AWS, ASME), Shear, Temperature and Humidity, Combined Tension and Compression, Through Thickness, True Strain, Notched Tensile, and r (ASTM E646, AWS, ASME) & n (ASTM E517, AWS, ASME) values.

Bend
Bend testing is a procedure to determine the relative ductility of metal that is to be formed (usually sheet, strip, plate or wire) or to determine soundness and toughness of metal (after welding, etc.) The specimen is usually bent over a specified diameter mandrel. The four general types of bends are; free bend, guided bend (ASTM E190, AWS, ASME), semi-guided bend (ASTM E290, AWS, ASME,), and wrap around bend.

Impact Testing
ASTM E23 and IS/ BS Standard
The impact test is a method for evaluating the toughness and notch sensitivity of engineering materials. It is usually used to test the toughness of metals, but similar tests are used for polymers, ceramics and composites. Metal industry sectors include Oil and Gas, Aerospace, Power Generation, Automotive, and Nuclear.

The notched test specimen is broken by the impact of a heavy pendulum or hammer, falling at a predetermined velocity through a fixed distance. The test measures the energy absorbed by the fractured specimen.

Charpy Impact Test
A test specimen is machined to a 10mm x 10mm (full size) cross-section, with either a "V" or "U" notch. Sub-size specimens are used where the material thickness is restricted. Specimens can be tested down to cryogenic temperatures.
Nick Break
The principle of this test is to break the sample through the weld metal in order to examine the fractured surface. Applying a three point bend load induces the fracture. The fracture surface is then examined and the type and location of any weld defect are reported.

Weldability
This procedure consists of performing a chemical analysis and/or mechanical tests with metallography to provide data for the determination of weldability. Weld Engineering provides additional support and recommendations for the material usage. If necessary, trial welds can be fully tested and examined to provide final data.

Hardness Testing

Brinell
ASTM E10 and IS/ BS Standard
This is a simple indentation test for determining the hardness of a wide variety of materials. The test consists of applying a prescribed load, usually between 500kg and 3000kg for a specified time (10-30 seconds) using a 5 or 10mm diameter tungsten carbide ball on the flat surface of a metal sample.

Vickers
This testing is similar to Brinell in that a defined indenter is pressed into a material. Once the indenting force is removed, the resulting indentation diagonals are measured. Micro indentation Vickers is per ASTM E384 and Macro indentation Vickers is per ASTM E92.

Rockwell
ASTM E18 and IS/ BS Standard
This test differs from the Brinell test in the shape of the indenter and in the manner that the number is determined. The Rockwell number represents the difference in depth penetration between two loads. There are two types of Rockwell; Rockwell and Superficial Rockwell. The difference between the two are the minor and major loads applied to the specimen. The indenter used may be a diamond cone or a hardened ball depending principally on the characteristics of the material being tested.

Micro Hardness
ASTM E384 and IS/ BS Standard
A micro indentation is made on the surface of a metal sample. The hardness number is based upon the measurements made of the indent formed in the surface of the test specimen.